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高盛高華財經詞典 ─ 漢英對照

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中文詞句
English Terms
English Definitions
息票 Coupon The interest rate stated on a bond when it's issued. The coupon is typically paid semiannually.
稀有 Scarcity The basic economic problem, which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.
洗黑錢 Money Laundering The process by which large amounts of money illegally obtained from drug trafficking, terrorist activity, or other serious crimes, is given the appearance of having originated from a legitimate source.
系統性風險 Systematic Risk risk that influences a large number of assets.
下調評級 Downgrade A negative change in the rating of a security.
下游 Downstream Refers to oil and gas operations after the production phase and through to the point of sale.
先進先出 First In, First Out (FIFO) An inventory management and valuation method where the products acquired first are the ones sold first.
先投資,后調查 Invest, Then Investigate An investment strategy where investors immediately purchase a stock and then do research and due diligence afterwards.
閑置時間 Idle Time Unproductive time spent by employees due to factors beyond their control.
現貨 Cash Commodity The term used to refer to the actual or physical commodity underlying a futures contract.
現貨即期價格 Spot Price The current price at which a particular commodity can be bought or sold at a specified time and place.
現貨商品 Spot Commodity A commodity traded on the spot market. That is, with the expectation of actual delivery, as opposed to a commodity future that is usually not delivered.
現貨市場 Cash Market The market for a cash commodity or actual, as opposed to its futures contract.
現貨市場 Spot Market
  1. A commodities market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately.
  2. A futures transaction which will expire in 1 month or less.
現金 Cash Legal tender or coins that can be used in exchange goods, debt, or services. Sometimes also including the value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company.
現金的現金回報率 Cash on Cash Return A rate of return often used in real estate transactions. The calculation determines "cash income" on "cash invested."
Annual Dollar Income
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Total Dollar Investment
現金股息 Cash Dividend Money paid to stockholders, normally out of the corporation's current earnings or accumulated profits. All dividends must be declared by the board of directors, and are taxable income to the recipients.
現金及現金等價物 Cash And Cash Equivalents An element recorded on the balance sheet, it reports the value of cash and its equivalents. These are assets that are cash or can be converted into cash immediately.
現金價格 Cash Price The price of the purchase and delivery of cash commodities.
現金流 Cash Flow The amount of cash a company generates and uses during a period, calculated by adding noncash charges (such as depreciation) to the net income after taxes. Cash Flow can be used as an indication of a company's financial strength.
It is also sometimes referred to as the "money value" of trades in a stock during a trading day
現金每股盈利 Cash EPS A ratio derived from operating cash flow divided by diluted shares outstanding.
現金投資 Cash Investment Short-term obligations, usually ninety days or less, that provide a return in the form of interest payments.
現金余額養老金計劃 Cash Balance Pension Plan An employee pension plan whereby an employer will credit the participant's account with a set percentage of their yearly compensation plus interest charges.
現金預算 Cash Budget An estimation of the cash inflows and outflows for a business.
現時價格 Current Price The "real time" price of a security trading on an exchange.
現時年期 Current Maturity The interval between the present date and the maturity date of a bond.
現時收益率 Current Yield Annual income (interest or dividends) divided by the current price of the security.
現值 Present Value The amount today that a sum of money in the future is worth, given a specified rate of return.
相對實力 Relative Strength A measure of price trend that indicates how a stock is performing relative to other stocks in its industry. It is calculated dividing the price performance of a stock by the price performance of an appropriate index for the same time period.
相對市盈率比率 Price-Earnings Relative A stocks price-earnings ratio divided by the price-earnings ratio for a market measure, such as the S&P 500 index or Wilshire 5000.
相關證券、相關股票 Underlying
  1. In options, the security that must be delivered if a put or call option is exercised.
  2. In equities, the common stock that underlies certain types of securities such as warrants and convertible bonds
項目融資 Project Finance Project finance is defined by the The International Project Finance Association (IPFA) as:
The financing of long-term infrastructure, industrial projects and public services based upon a non-recourse or limited recourse financial structure where project debt and equity used to finance the project are paid back from the cashflow generated by the project.
消費物價指數 CPI A measure of price changes in consumer goods and services such as gasoline, food, and automobiles
消費物價指數 Consumer Price Index (CPI) A measure of price changes in consumer goods and services such as gasoline, food, and automobiles
消費信貸 Consumer Credit A debt that someone incurs for the purpose of purchasing a good or service.
消費者信心指數 Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) A survey of consumer confidence by the Conference Board. It measures how optimistic or pessimistic consumers are with respect to the economy in the near future.
銷記、注銷 Write-Off To charge an asset amount to expense or loss in order to reduce the value of that asset and one's earnings.
銷售報酬 Concession A selling group's compensation in an underwriting (on a per-share or per-bond basis).
銷售額與現金流比率 Sales to Cash Flow Ratio A ratio that indicates whether or not a company's sales are high in comparison to its cash flow.
Calculated as:
Sales per Share
‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
Cash Flow per Share
銷售回報率 Return On Sales (ROS) A widely used ratio that detects operational efficiency. It is calculated by dividing net income before interest and tax by the sales.
銷售及行政開支 Selling, General, & Administrative Expenses (SG&A) Reported on the Income Statement, it is all the costs associated with selling and the general expenses of running the business.
銷售稅 Sales Tax A tax that is imposed on the sale price of a retail good or services.
效益比例 Efficiency Ratio A ratio used to calculate a bank's efficiency. Not all banks calculate the efficiency ratio the same way. We've seen the ratio calculated as all of the following:
  1. non-interest expense divided by total revenue less interest expense
  2. non-interest expense divided by net interest income before provision for loan losses
  3. non-interest expense divided into revenue
  4. operating expenses divided by fee income plus tax equivalent net interest income
For all versions of the ratio, an increase means the company is losing a larger percentage of its income to expenses. If it is getting lower, it is good for the bank and its shareholders.
效益成本比率 Benefit Cost Ratio - (BCR) A ratio attempting to clearly identify the relationship between the cost and benefits of a proposed project.
協同效應 Synergy Used mostly in the context of mergers and acquisitions, synergy is the idea that the value and performance of two companies combined will be greater than the sum of the separate individual parts.
新經濟 New Economy A buzzword describing the new, high growth industries that are on the cutting edge of technology and are the driving force of economic growth.
新聞稿 Press Release If it's an earnings press release, the release will discuss the financial results of the company for the recently completed quarter and may provide comments from management. Press releases often list valuable contact information that can assist you in your research, such as the company's web address.
新興市場基金 Emerging Market Fund A mutual fund investing a majority of its assets in the financial markets of a developing country, typically a small market with a short operating history.
信貸額度、資金設施 Facility A term used to describe financial assistance programs offered by lending institutions to help companies requiring capital.
信貸額度、信貸限額 Line of Credit An arrangement between a financial institution (usually a bank) and a customer establishing a maximum loan balance that the bank will permit the borrower to maintain.
信貸風險 Credit Risk The possibility of a loss occurring due to the financial failure to meet contractual debt obligations.
信貸違約掉期 Credit Default Swap A swap designed to transfer the credit exposure of fixed income products between parties.
信貸息差 Credit Spread
  1. The spread between Treasury securities and non-Treasury securities that are identical in all respects except for quality rating.
  2. An options strategy where a high premium option is sold and a low premium option is bought on the same underlying security.
信貸、信用、貸項 Credit
  1. A contractual agreement in which a borrower receives something of value now, with the agreement to repay the lender at some date in the future. Also, the borrowing capacity of an individual or company.
  2. An accounting entry system that either decreases assets or increases liabilities.
信貸衍生工具 Credit Derivative Privately held negotiable bilateral contracts that allow users to manage their exposure to credit risk. Credit Derivatives are financial assets like forward contracts, swaps, and options for which the price is driven by the credit risk of economic agents (private investors or governments).
信托 Trust A fiduciary relationship in which one person, a trustee, holds title to property or assets for the benefit of another person, the beneficiary
信用合作社 Credit Union Member-owned financial co-operative. These institutions are created and operated by its members and profits are shared amongst the owners.
信用卡 Credit Card A card allowing someone to make a purchase on borrowed money. Credit cards are one of the most popular forms of payment for consumer goods and services in the United States.
信用評級 Credit Rating An assessment of the credit worthiness of individuals and corporations. It is based upon the history of borrowing and repayment, as well as the availability of assets and extent of liabilities.
信用懸崖 Credit Cliff A slang term meaning that credit deterioration could be compounded by provisions such as rating triggers or financial covenants. These can put pressure on the company's liquidity or its business to a material extent.
信用證 Letter of Credit A letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct amount.
行為經濟學 Behavioral Economics A field of economics that studies how the actual decision-making process influences the decisions that are reached.
行為金融學 Behavioral Finance A field of finance that proposes psychology-based theories to explain stock market anomalies. Within behavioral finance it is assumed that the information structure and the characteristics of market participants systematically influence their investment decisions as well as market outcomes.
行使價格 Strike Price The stated price per share for which underlying stock may be purchased (for a call) or sold (for a put) by the option holder upon exercise of the option contract.
行使、執行 Exercise An action by a stockholder taking advantage of a privilege offered by a company or other financial institution. This includes warrants, options, and other exotic financial instruments.
熊市 Bear Market A market in which prices of a certain group of securities are falling or are expected to fall. Although figures can vary, a downturn of 15%-20% or more in multiple indexes (Dow or S&P 500) is considered a bear market.
需求 Demand A consumer's desire and willingness to pay for a good or service.
需求的價格彈性 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in its price. It is calculated as:
% Change in Quantity Demanded
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% Change in Price
需求建檔 Book Building The process by which the offer price of an IPO is based on actual demand from institutional investors.
宣告(合約)無效、廢止契約 Defeasance A provision that voids a bond or loan when the borrower sets aside cash or bonds sufficient enough to service the borrower's debt.
選出最有利的(投資等) Cherry Picking
  1. The act of investors choosing investments that have performed well within another portfolio in anticipation that the trend will continue.
  2. Relating to bankruptcy proceedings whereby the courts uphold contracts favorable to bankrupt companies, but annul those that are unfavorable.
循環信貸 Revolving Credit A line of credit where the customer pays a commitment fee and is then allowed to take and repay funds at will. It is usually used for operating purposes, fluctuating each month depending on revenues and expenditures
迅速換手投資者 Flipper A short-term investor or day trader who buys pre IPO shares, swiftly spinning them out into public markets for a quick profit.


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